(Are DOS and BIOS routines are same?): (Introduction to Dos and Bios)
Are Dos and Bios routines are same as well as introduction to Dos and Bios-The BIOS routines give a hardware-independent interface to different gadgets within the IBM PC framework. Whereas the BIOS permit you to manipulate gadgets in an awfully low level design, MS-DOS gives a high-level interface to numerous gadgets. For example, one of the BIOS routines permits you to get to the floppy disk drive.
Introduction to Dos
A computer processes data according to some instructions. A program is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do. Giving instructions to a computer is called programming. Software consists of all the programs that run on a computer.
What is software?
Software is a set of programs that makes the computer a useful system. These programs make computers perform special functions like starting up, shutting down, and creating files. There are two types of software. Let’s discuss them one by one.
System software consists of programs that help a computer perform routine tasks like starting up, shutting down, and saving files.
OS full form is operating system which is the most important system software.
The operating system.
The operating system is a set of programs stored partially on the hard disk and partially on a ROM chip. It controls routine tasks performed by the computer. It ensures that the processor and peripheral devices work together. It maintains the security of the system. The names of some of the most popular operating systems are Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS, and OS/2.
When the computer is switched on, the operating system is loaded from the hard disk into the, primary memory. The process of starting up a computer is called booting up. The computer follows instructions held on a ROM chip known as BIOS.
BIOS full form is Basic Input Output System. This helps the computer to check if it is working properly. It then looks for the operating system (OS) to tell it what to do next.
Application software consists of programs that allow a computer to do special tasks. A word processor and a computer game are application software. Application software should be easy to use. Such programs are known as content-free applications because the user decides what to use the software for. You might want to use a word processor to write a letter or to design a poster.
System software is essential for a computer. It is installed by the computer manufacturer. Application software is not as essential. Different people need different application software. They are available on CD-ROMs made by several companies. By installing a CD-Rom in the CD-Rom drive, users can upload application software on their computers. Nowadays, manufacturers have started installing system software and some common application software like games and word processors on their computers. Such software is called integrated software.
The user-computer interface
Interface is the place where two things meet. Users communicate with computer to provide data and instructions, and to receive output. They use an interface called the user-computer interface.
There are two types of user-computer interface.
- Command Line Interface
A command line interface is a way of interacting with the computer by typing commands on a keyboard. These commands instruct the computer to create, e save, or delete files. The most popular command line interface is DOS.
- (DOS) Disk Operating System
DOS is a group of programs to manage the basic operations of a computer. It was used during the 1980s and 1990s. The DOS interface consists of a prompt against a plain background. It appears as C:\> or A:\>, and indicates that the OS is ready to receive a command. The user types a command for a particular task.
MS-DOS is a well-known version of DOS. It follows commands to perform several tasks.
- Booting up the computer
- Providing a user-computer interface
- Running programs
- Managing files and directories
- Managing the use of memory
- Controlling peripheral devices
If you have DOS installed as the main operating system, the DOS prompt is shown automatically when you switch on the computer. If you have Microsoft Windows XP installed, you can go to the DOS prompt. To activate the DOS prompt, click on the Start button on the desktop of your computer. Choose the All Programs Menu. From this menu, select Command Prompt. A window opens displaying the DOS interface. To expand it to full screen, press Alt+Enter. To close the screen, type exit on the command prompt and press Enter.
Commands are typed on the MS-DOS command line. The command prompt identifies the command line. The letter in the prompt indicates the current disk drive. This tells the user where in the memory data is being stored. The user types a command and presses Enter.
Organizing information in files
Data on a computer is stored in files. Each file is given a name and is stored in the memory. Program files are created by programmers. They store instructions for running programs. Data files store information created by users of a program.
Organizing files into directories
A disk can hold thousands of files, depending on its size. It can be difficult to look for a specific file from so many of them. It is easier to group related files into directories. We can use MS-DOS commands to group data files into directories.
Dividing directories into sub directories
When directories become very large, we can create additional directories to organize our files. A directory within another directory is called a sub directory. The organization of directories, sub directories, and files is called the directory tree.
Entering commands in MS-DOS
When typing commands, it is important to use the correct syntax. Syntax is the arrangement of words and symbols in a statement. If we enter a command in an incorrect syntax, the computer will not understand it.
- Command: CLS Function: To clear the screen Syntax: C:\>cls
- Command: DATE
Function: To display the date or change it
- Command: TIME
Function: To display the time or reset the time
- Command: MD
Function: To create a directory or subdirectory
Syntax: C:\>md <name of the directory>
C:\rightbyte>md <name of the subdirectory>
- Command: COPY CON
Function: To create and save a new file
Syntax: C:\>copy con <name of the file.txt>
(Press Ctrl+Z and Enter after entering all data in the file to save and exit it.)
- Command: TYPE
Function: To view the contents of a file
Syntax: C:\>type <name of file>
- Command: DEL
Function: To delete a file
Syntax: C:\>del <name of the file.txt>
- Command: DIR
Function: To display a list of files and subdirectories
Graphical User Interface
A graphical user interface uses visual images to help users give instructions to the operating system. It is easier to use than a command line interface.
- A program is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.
- Software consists of all the programs that run on a computer.
- System software consists of programs that help a computer perform routine tasks.
- The operating system (OS) is the most important system software.
- Application software consists of programs that allow a computer to do special tasks.
- Users and computers share information by using a user-computer interface.
- A command line interface is a way of interacting with the computer by typing commands on a keyboard. The most popular command line interface is DOS.
- The DOS interface consists of a prompt against a plain background.
- The MS-DOS command line is where commands are typed.
- Data on a computer is stored in files. Each file is stored in the memory.
- A directory is a group of related files.
- A directory within another directory is called a sub directory.
- The organization of directories, sub directories, and files is called the directory tree.
- When typing commands in DOS, it is important to use the correct syntax. • Syntax is the arrangement of words and symbols in a statement so that it makes sense.
- A graphical user interface uses visual images to help users give instructions to the operating system.