(What is Computer Full Form?):(Introduction of Computer)
Computer Full Form:
Computer full form is “Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research.”
Computer Introduction: Evolution of Computer
(What is computer full form)(Introduction of computer)-The word computer is derived from the Latin word “Compute” which means to calculate.
The world has revolutionized since the introduction of computers and what was once science fiction has now turned into reality. The amazing word computer opens up a magical world for us: a world of solutions, speed, control, information, and communication.
Data processing helps us think about problems and solve them. A data-processing system helps us process data faster. A computer is an automatic, electronic, data-processing system. Computers are found in many areas of our lives. They are used for storing information, controlling traffic, and entertaining ourselves.
How computers process data:
A computer receives input in the form of raw data, through an input device. It processes data by changing it into an understandable form. Processed data is called information. The computer then presents information to end users. This information is called output.
Computers can be made to process data in even faster and better ways. The present-day computers owe their processing power and strength to their ancestors. They have come a long way to achieve this height, and many people have contributed in their own quiet ways to help achieve this powerful multifaceted tool. Let’s see how computers have changed with time.
The abacus is the earliest calculator. It uses beads that are moved across wires or strings. It is used to add and subtract numbers. Using the age old denary number system, it helped in achieving accuracy in calculations.
In 1617, John Napier invented a system called Napier’s bones. It consisted of a set of rods with numbers written on them. It could be used to multiply and divide numbers.
In 1642, Blaise Pascal developed the first mechanical calculator called the Pascaline. Instead of beads or rods, it was operated by wheels and could add and subtract numbers.
Every move was strengthening the foundation not only for more complex calculations but for greater speed, automation, and accuracy.
The Leibniz calculator:
Gottfried Leibniz invented the Leibniz Calculator in 1694. It used wheels to add and subtract, but it could also multiply and divide numbers. This was the breakthrough awaited for, a step ahead from addition and subtraction towards advanced calculations.
The punched card:
A punched card is a strip of card with holes punched into it. Punched card was developed by Joseph Jacquard in I801 to control a weaving loom. Late, punched cards were used to program or instructions to computers.
Punched card technology was used in for supermarkets for automatic data entry in the form of Kimball tags until bar codes completely took over.
Charles Babbage is called the Father of the Modern Digital Computer. In the nineteenth century, he designed two machines called the difference engine and the analytical engine. The analytical engine could be programmed. Users only had to give instructions to the machine the first time they were performing a calculation.
Babbage used punched cards to give instructions to the analytical engine. He used the sequence and arrangement of holes as a code of instructions. Lady Ada Lovelace wrote these instructions. She is called the first programmer.
The concept of a set of instructions to be followed in sequence had emerged. Since then it has been evolving towards perfection.
In 1890, Herman Hollerith developed a tabulating machine. He used punched cards to give instructions to it and to store data. The tabulating machine was used to sort and count census figures. This introduced the concept of storage devices into the evolution of computers.
The electronic computer:
In the twentieth century, computers were using electrical power to process information. These computers developed more rapidly than earlier computing devices.
Let’s look at how each computer generation contributed to the development of the modern digital computer.
The first generation of computers: 1942-1955
The computers of the first generation worked on vacuum tubes. A vacuum tube consists of a glass bulb and a wire. The wire carries data in the form of electronic signals. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was a first-generation computer. It contained nearly 19,000 vacuum tubes and weighed about 30 tons. Some other computers of this generation were EDVAC and EDSAC.
First-generation computers were very large, made many mistakes, produced a lot of heat, and were difficult to move from one place to another.
The second generation of computers: 1956-1964
Second-generation computers worked on transistors. A transistor carries much more electric current than a vacuum tube. These computers were faster and smaller. They were also cheaper, more reliable, and produced less heat.
The third generation of computers: 1965-1975
Third-generation computers worked on an integrated circuit (IC). An integrated circuit is as small as a transistor but it can work as fast as thousands of them. Computers became smaller, faster, and cheaper. They used less electricity and made fewer mistakes.
The fourth generation of computers: 1975 onwards:
Fourth-generation computers are based on microprocessors. A microprocessor consists of a small silicon chip on which thousands of circuits are placed. The computers used today are based on microprocessors. They are smaller, portable, reliable, and cheaper.
They use less electricity and produce less heat. The microprocessor revolutionized electronic gadgetry, and today, smart devices are found in every household. Smart devices use microcontrollers and are called dedicated computers.
The fifth generation of computers:
Scientists are trying to develop computers that can think like humans and create their own solutions. This kind of intelligence is called artificial intelligence.
Robots and voice recognition systems are artificial intelligence-based computers. Expert systems also use the Al factor.
There are two types of computing devices: analog devices and digital devices.
Devices that process analog data are called analog devices. Analog data has continuous values. It is used for measuring quantities like length, weight, and time. Analog clocks, weighing scales, and thermometers are analog devices.
Digital devices process digital data. Digital data is discrete. It is used to count things or measure things in steps. Digital devices do not give readings on a continuous scale. Digital clocks, traffic lights, calculators, and digital thermometers are digital devices. Most computers are also digital devices.
Computers can be classified according to size. Their different sizes allow them to be used by different numbers of people for a variety of applications. The range of different types of computers available is enormous. Each type is briefly described below.
Supercomputers are the most complex computers. They use many advanced design techniques and have very high computing capacities and speeds. They require special air-conditioned rooms. The supercomputer used at the British Meteorological Office completes over 100,000,000,000 calculations in order to produce a weather forecast for the next 24 hours.
Supercomputer users are people who need to process complex data. Examples are automotive engineers who simulate cars crashing into walls and aero plane designers who simulate air flowing over an aero plane wing. Supers, as they are called, are also used for oil exploration. They can help managers in department store chains to decide what to buy and where to stock it.
The mainframe computer
Mainframe computers are large and expensive computers. They have powerful processors and very large memories. They are used in large banks, airlines, and universities. Hundreds of users can work at a mainframe at the same time.
Minicomputers are smaller and cheaper than mainframe computers. They have less processing power. Minicomputers can process large amounts of data and are used by medium or large-sized businesses, colleges, banks, and libraries. Fewer people can work on a minicomputer.
Microcomputers are smaller and cheaper than minicomputers. They are used by small businesses, schools, and in homes. They are used by single users and are called desktop computers or personal computers (PCs).
Microcomputers come in different shapes and sizes.
The laptop computer
Laptop computers are also called notebook computers and are smaller than desktop computers. They consist of a keyboard, monitor, processor, and storage devices built into a single case. They are lighter and can be powered by a battery. They are portable but more expensive than desktop computers.
The Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are smaller than laptop computers. They are used to organize appointments and daily schedules. There is no keyboard. Input is done by writing with a stylus (pen) on a pad, or by pressing a flexible button.
An embedded computer is a microprocessor that is fitted into a device to control its operation. Microcontrollers, also called embedded computers, are tiny, specialized microprocessors installed in smart appliances and automobiles. Programmed instructions are stored on the microprocessor. Embedded computers can only work on a specific device and are also called dedicated computers. They are used in toys, cameras, microwave ovens, air conditioners, etc.
Just about anywhere you go today, you will find a computer in use. It was not too long ago that computers were very large, and most people could not afford to buy one. Over the years, computers have not only become smaller but also less expensive. Now many people can afford to buy a personal computer. Think about all the different places where you have seen a computer.
Banks use computers to keep track of their clients’ money.
Businesses Use, small and large, use word processors, databases, and spreadsheets.
Factories use computerized robots to assemble things such as cars and televisions.
Entertainment companies use computers to create cartoons and special effects on TV and in movies.
Advertising companies use computer graphics to create colourful advertisements for TV, magazines, and newspapers.
Medical professionals use computers for research, treatment, and producing X-rays.
Law enforcement agencies use computers to track down criminals.
Sum up: conclusion
- A computer is an automatic, electronic, data-processing system.
- A computer receives input in the form of data. Processed data is called information.
- The abacus is the earliest calculator. It is used to add and subtract numbers.
- Napier’s bones are used to multiply and divide numbers with the help of a set of rods with numbers written on them.
- The Pascaline is the first mechanical calculator. It uses wheels to add and subtract numbers.
- The Leibniz Calculator uses wheels to multiply and divide numbers.
- A punched card is a strip of card with holes punched into it.
- Charles Babbage is called the Father of the Modern Digital Computer. He designed the difference engine and the analytical engine.
- Herman Hollerith’s tabulating machine used punched cards to count census figures.
- The computers of the first generation worked on vacuum tubes. A vacuum tube consists of a glass bulb and a wire.
- Second-generation computers worked on transistors.
- Third-generation computers worked on an integrated circuit (IC).
- Fourth-generation computers are based on microprocessors.
- Fifth-generation computers are based on artificial intelligence.
- Analog devices process analog data. Analog data has continuous values. It is used for measuring quantities.
- Digital devices process digital data. Digital data is discrete. It is used to count things.
- The fastest and most powerful computers are called supercomputers.
- Mainframe computers are large and expensive computers. They have powerful processors and very large memories.
- Minicomputers are smaller and cheaper than mainframe computers. They have less processing power.
- Microcomputers are smaller and cheaper than minicomputers. They are also called desktop computers or personal computers (PCs).